The shoulder joint (or the glenohumeral joint) is formed by the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula. This is the spherical joint in the body that enables the greatest possible range of movements. Its high mobility results from stability and is minimized due to the existence of support ligaments and cartilage. The elbow is formed by 2 joints that articulate the humerus, the radius and the ulna, enabling strengthening and bending movements. In addition to the ligaments and muscles that stabilize them, both joints have protective cartilage (membranous cushions with synovial fluid) that acts as a shock absorber. Dislocations (2-bone dislocation) and tendinitis are the most common shoulder injuries, causing pain and limited mobility. In the elbow, epicondylitis (known as the tennis and golfers’ elbow) and dislocations occur frequently.
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“My name is Pedro Miguel Marques and I am a doctor since 2007, year I graduated from the Medical School of the University of Coimbra.”